br state of apoptosis after h Fig
state of apoptosis after 24 h (Fig. 7; D). Biological evaluation of mole-cular mechanism of action is more complicated, and connected to the different players modulation: of calcium concentration, macro-molecules (lipid) metabolism, enzymes activities (tyrosine kinase),
transcription factors and cytokines expression, cell motility and adhe-sion molecules modification (Fig. 8) . The ZnPcOC, could be clas-sified as a novel-generation photosensitizer for PDT, and is character-ized by its preferences to cancer tissues uptake and accumulation, low
J. Nackiewicz et al.
cytotoxicity in NHDF healthy cells, and selectivity against Me45 cells. Metallophthalocyanines, with Zn active centre, were chosen after re-ports, where phthalocyanines were presented as antioxidants . However, another metal-based nanoparticles (ZnNPs, AgNPs) are now reported as promising photosensitizers-like molecules [1,44–46].
Our in vitro study showed that ZnPcOC mediated photodynamic therapy is an effective treatment option for melanoma Me45 cancer cells. 30 μM of ZnPcOC with the treatment light dose of 2.5 J/cm2 from LED diode laser source, with a wavelength of 685 nm, was adequate to destroy melanoma cancer AUY922 (NVP-AUY922) via ROS-induced apoptosis pathway, with low killing effects on healthy NHDF normal fibroblasts (Fig. 8).
• ZnPcOC are a good photosensitizers tested in PDT therapy against Me45 cancer cells; • Mechanism of ZnPcOC activation after irradiation is connected to enhanced ROS production in Me45 cells; • ROS24h; production, after ZnPcOC and irradiation is observed within
• ZnPcOC are good pro-apoptotic photosentizers, induce early stage of apoptosis immediately after exposition, followed by 4 h of pre-
incubation with photosensitizer;
• Apoptosis is still observed after 24 h of observations, only in pho-tosensitized and irradiated cancer cell;
• Zinc-phthalocyanine used in PDT therapy against melanoma cancer cells, Me45 is connected with apoptotic, but not necrotic cellular death.
Dr. Maria Widel and dr. Dorota Ścieglińska (Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, branch in Gliwice, Poland) are acknowledged for their kind gifts of Me45 and HaCaT cells. Magdalena Skonieczna received financial support (grant No. 02/010/RGH17/0092) funded by the Rector of the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology, B: Biology 190 (2019) 146–153
Joanna Nackiewicz conceived, designed and carried out the phy-sico-chemical experiments and wrote the paper. Magdalena Skonieczna conceived, designed and carried out the biological experiments and wrote the paper. Marta Kliber-Jasik carried out experiments and ana-lyzed chemical data. All authors were involved in revising the paper's important content.
Appendix A. Supplementary data
 K. Maduray, A. Karsten, B. Odhav, T. Nyokong, In vitro toxicity testing of zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines in fibroblast and keratinocyte cells for the treatment of melanoma cancer by photodynamic therapy, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 103 (2011) 98–104.
J. Nackiewicz et al.
lymphoblastoid cells to ionizing radiation, Med. Chem. (Los Angeles) 13 (2017).
 S. Boncel, A. Pluta, M. Skonieczna, et al., Hybrids of Iron-Filled Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Anticancer Agents as potential magnetic Drug delivery Systems: in Vitro Studies against Human Melanoma, Colon Carcinoma, and Colon Adenocarcinoma, J. Nanomater. 2017 (2017).
 W. Stummer, U. Pichlmeier, T. Meinel, O.D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, H.J. Reulen, Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial, Lancet Oncol. 7 (2006) 392–401.